The Legal Aid, Sentencing and Punishment of Offenders Act 2012 (LASPO) removed legal aid from most kinds of immigration case1 with effect from 1 April 2013. The government's justification was that immigration tribunals were user-friendly and accessible; individuals involved in immigration proceedings were not likely to be particularly vulnerable; and the issues were not generally complex, so that individuals would in the main be able to represent themselves. When asked about cases where the individual is particularly vulnerable, the issues at stake are particularly important, or particularly complex, or the matter is proceeding in one of the higher courts, the ...